Gender Gap in Japan
Nowadays, the gender issue is considered to be quite controversial. Some people believe that there is no problem concerning the position of man and women in the contemporary society. The other stick to the idea that women do not have the same rights as men has. Consequently, many studies have been carried on to investigate the particular problem. As a result, the scientists have found out that there is a gender gap in the contemporary society. Every country suffers from the discrimination at work and other social spheres. That is to say that women have the unstable position. The objective of the paper is to analyze the gender gap in Japan. Moreover, the analysis should base on the historical, social, and cultural background of the problem.
The first and the most important is the issue of the position of women at work. Basically, women occupy 10% of the management positions in Japan. In comparison with Norway, the per cent of working women is 30%. Moreover, the percentage of women who have the university degree and work is 65, while men are 95%. Additionally, there are unfair rules concerning the women who leave the work for maternal leave. It is a tendency in Japan that employers do not hire women after their maternal leave. Consequently, mother remains working at home taking care of the children. The mentioned information proves the old stereotype regarding the position of women in the society. Women have always been treated as housewives and baby sitters. In fact, men have a very strict position concerning working women. They believe that women cannot achieve the highest result at work. That is women should stay at home and help men achieve career goals. Nevertheless, such a tendency appeared only in Japan. In to have a look at the position of women in big companies in different countries, Japan is on the bottom of the list.
Speaking about the position of women at home, one may state that in Japan it is the main occupation of the females. The statistics show that in Japan women spend the whole day taking care of children while in other countries, such as Norway and Sweden husbands help their wives. However, the scholars are quite surprised regarding the position of women in Japan. That is to say that women can choose to work long hour and refuse to have children or stay at home and look after the house. Consequently, the fertility level is quite low in Japan. It is a result of womens choice to continue working. One more reason for low fertility is taxes and child support which are not family friendly at all. All of the mentioned factors influence the position of women at work and at home. Nevertheless, there are some important issues that cause the gender gap.
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Basically, culture, economic systems, and governmental policies are the factors that have the enormous impact on the gender gap in Japan. The culture has an enormous impact on gender gap. Initially, there is a stereotype that womens work is homework. Moreover, not every family can afford to have housekeepers and nannies to look after their kids. That is why most women decide to stay at home and look after it. Additionally, in Japan women have three years of maternal leave. Telling the truth, women do not return back to their working place and remain at home. Speaking about the economic situation, one may admit that women cannot obtain lasting position at job. The bright example is a problem that women face after the maternal leave. It is too hard to return to work after giving the birth to the children. Furthermore, working conditions are not for women. Basically, the long working hours and commuting are only the tiny percentage of obstacles women may face while working. The government encourages women to stay at home. LDP stated that women are recommended to stay at home for helping their husbands to be better workers. Furthermore, tax polices give women a small amount of money for caring of the children. The mentioned information says that womens better position is working at home and taking care of family.
Despite the analyzed information, there are some legislations of equal employment in Japan. According to the legislations employers do not have a right to discriminate women while hiring at work. Furthermore, companies cannot fire women because of pregnancy. These legislations enable to provide a slight increase in women employment for the last 50 years. Nevertheless, the percentage of working women is not so high in comparison with men. LDP does not consider women as potential tools for gaining the income. They believe that women are not good at business at all. Moreover, LDP does not support women politicians as well. They never show the preference to them.
Initially, the three facts that influence for the gender gap are quite complex. Nevertheless, the cultural one is the most influential. The reason is that it has deeply ingrained in the mentality of Japanese people. From the deepest past women had to sit and home and do the homework while the man had to find food for the family. It seems that economical and governmental polices do not have such an impact as culture. The traditions as well customers are transmitted from one generation to another. It will be quite difficult to make people think differently concerning the problem of a gender gap. The cultural factor prevails because of several issues. Firstly, it is supported by the time since the stereotypes from one generation goes to another one. Secondly, cultural identification of nation plays a significant role as well. Japan is known as a country where men work and women take care of children. Thirdly, the mentality is the basis of the cultural background of the nation. History, identity and mentality support the cultural approach, so it prevails among others. Nevertheless, the situation should be changed. Due to the extreme development of technologies the world requires more skillful workers. Women can provide effective and prosperous work. They are more persistent, determined, and hard-working as well. That is why employers can only benefit from hiring women. Furthermore, the employers have to keep in mind the fact that women can have the same work position after they give the birth to children. Women will return to the same plays and will be able to continue working. Additionally, the government has to provide effective supportive policies for women. That is to say that women will be able not only to take care of the children but also work. In such a way, women may combine working and upbringing. Japan has to choose a better system of care for mother and give them more security as well as support.
All in all, the gender gap is one of the most popular issues in the contemporary society. Every country has some problems with the position of men and women in the society. Nevertheless, there are some countries that cope with the problem and provide equal treatment of both sexes. However, there are some countries that remain the same in the mentioned question. The bright example is Japan. In this country, the percentage of working women are quite low. According to the cultural approach, women have to take care of children and look after the house. Such a tendency continues to prevail in Japan.