Dec 19, 2017 in Sociology

Culture and Artificial Intelligence

Technological discoveries have greatly changed and improved the way of life of people. The invention of computers has led to many innovations including the internet, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, and expert system. Artificial intelligence enables developing of machines that “think and act like humans”. In other words, it is a creation of machines that can perform activities requiring reasoning (Whitby 37). Artificial intelligence covers areas counting the natural language processing, knowledge representing, automated reasoning, machine learning on the par with the elaborating of the machine vision and robotics, which sooner or later approach the culture issue.

Culture is the “belief, knowledge, art, law, moral and custom acquired by a man” in the society (Taylor). It normally exists in the mind, and, therefore, changes day by day. Considering the cultural traits, humanity tends to communicate verbally; be guided by grammatical rules; use the gauges and gender of people to classify themselves; bring up children in a family; classify work as the one for women, and the other for men; create rules to control sexual behavior; impose rules distinguishing bad and good behavior; and, finally, they are inclined to implement the different leadership roles in society. This document discusses how culture impacts artificial intelligence, and vice versa (Taylor).

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History of Artificial Intelligence

Since the invention of computers, there have been a quest for the development of machines that would perform functions requiring reasoning. Therefore from 1943 to 1955, McCulloch and Pitts, through the knowledge of basics of philosophy and functions of the brain built a Boolean circuit model of brain. Donald Hebb, at this time, had demonstrated Hebbian learning, which updated the connection weights.

Since 1952 to 1959, scientists created the early artificial intelligence programs including the checkers, logic theorists, and geometry engines. At this point, neural networks almost disappeared. Researchers admitted that most programs worked in theory, but failed in practice. In the period from 1969 to 1979, the explorers devised the knowledge based systems such as DENDRAL mass spectral analyzer and Mycin for medical diagnosis.  

From 1980, artificial intelligence becomes an industry. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) developed the commercial products, for instance R1, able to assist in configuring orders for the new computer systems. The major corporation of the United States developed the private groups of artificial intelligence. At this point, Data Mining Technologies showed a great promise. Theretofore there existed a culture that conceded only a human factor for the activities that require reasoning, while artificial intelligence has changed the notions of the culture as it enables the development of machines capable of performing the logic tasks substituting a person.

Methodology

It has been found that artificial intelligence has impacted the culture, and vise versa. This research focused on a qualitative and quantitative data collected from both the primary and secondary sources. It utilized the interviews, questionnaires, books, journals, and the Internet information regarding the topic (Axinn). Besides it, the factual and inferential data was used with bias data collected from the interviewing of IT experts as well as the humanity ones.

To analyze the data the pie charts and graphs were explored. Therefore, this gave an in-depth result in the current trends in artificial intelligence impacting the culture, and inversely. The research, however, could not include the observation due to the financial constraints. The reason for this was that some research stations are inaccessible owing to the distance.  

The paper is organized into two parts discussing how artificial intelligence has impacted the culture in two ways, and vice versa. It, thereafter, gives a conclusion on the subject.

As one goes deep into the study of culture and artificial intelligent, he/she finds that culture effects artificial intelligent both positively and negatively. It is the changing needs of culture that drives the development of the artificial intelligence machines in order to meet the requirements of human beings.

Impacts of Artificial Intelligence on Culture

Artificial intelligence has profoundly changed the human culture in terms of reasoning. It is evident that not all tasks that require logic can be done by a person. For example, the assignments such as planning and reasoning that were performed only by humans are nowadays conducted by computers. Industry planning and scheduling that require a lot of time and expertise are now done by computers. Consequently, the culture of time consuming processes in industry planning has been changed completely since it takes a very short time when done by computers.

Traditionally, games were played among human beings. In contrast, artificial intelligence nowadays creates machines that successfully play sets with human beings, and even defeat them. Deep Blue, for example, defeated the reigning world champion of chess, Garry Kasparov in 1997. Thereafter, many games that require logic are played between the computers and people shifting from physical games to computer ones. Artificial intelligence, in this regard, has changed the way people socialize. Many people today prefer playing games with machines such as computer or telephone either than a fellow human. This has negatively impacted a social life of the whole humanity.

Control over the machines such as cars has always been associated with human beings. It was firstly known to be a job of men to drive. With the time the culture continued to change as more women learnt to steer, and did it even better than men. Artificial intelligence impacted the culture even further by creating a machine that drove 98% of the time autonomously not implying hands manipulations across America from Pittsburg to San Diego without causing any accidents in the road. This indicated that machines could do some things better.

Moreover, the patient diagnosis is not only made by humans without a help of machines. Artificial intelligent has enabled the creation of machines that assist human to diagnose patients quite well. As a result, this has influenced the culture where people believed that only human beings can diagnose diseases.

Logistics and planning, which was initially made by human beings, are nowadays are perfectly performed by machines. This is evident from the situation in 1991 during Gulf War when the forces of the United States used an artificial intelligence logistics planning and scheduling programs arranging about fifty thousand vehicle cargo and people. The artificial intelligent logistics worked well in the war that, in a result, demonstrated its efficiency and perspectives.

Another advantage is the involvement of robots in surgery and cancer treatment altering the whole idea of a human factor. Critical hospital processes used to be left for human professionals are nowadays done by machines, namely, robots assist human beings to perform a surgery and treat illnesses such as cancer, which require the use of powerful rays. In such a way, protecting the medical staff from the irradiation or a probable mistake, and saving the life of a patient new technologies prove itself to be very helpful. The further development goes, the more indispensable machines become nowadays putting people into dependence on them.

Generally, artificial intelligence has greatly changed the culture of people believing that only human beings can perform tasks that require reasoning. As can be seen, machines perform various assignments that were traditionally believed to be only possible due to the involvement of human.

Impacts of Culture on Artificial Intelligence

The discovery of artificial intelligence was assumed with the mixed reactions. Some people accepting the technology argue that it helps the mankind, while others refuse it, maintain that it will soon reduce the value of humanity. The forces against it have greatly hindered its improvement.

The changing culture of society has led to the development of artificial intelligent machines that help to fill the gap of the growing demands and needs of people. Very few people today, for example, have developed an understanding that does not allow them to commit themselves to developing an interpersonal relationship with their families and friends (Boden). This has encouraged the development of artificial intelligence machines that re-humanize a society.

In the modern culture, people prefer the automation of duties to obtain efficient and effective output. People in the present world are used to operating with machines. They, therefore, try as much as possible to develop the intelligent machines that would perform tasks that require reasoning. This has been the driving force in the development of artificial intelligence.

Even though the artificial intelligence has been really improved, and its outcome proves to be beneficial to the society, there are those who believe that it will eventually replace human workforce since it enables machines to do what humans normally do. It would also lead to the creation of artificial human beings, which protest not only against the culture but religion as well.

Conclusion

Artificial intelligence is a highly developed technology capable of substituting a person in operations requiring logic and high accuracy. Even though people traditionally believed that tasks requiring reasoning could only be performed by human beings, artificial intelligence has demonstrated that machines can also perform such tasks, some even better than humans. This is evident from the World Chess Championship, when Garry Kasparov was defeated by Deep Blue.

Some cultures encourage the advancement of artificial intelligence. For example, modern culture where people like the automating tasks has encouraged the development of machines that perform assignments requiring human reasoning. What is more, the present day trend makes people find little time for their families. As a consequence, this encourages the development of artificial intelligence machines that would unite families together.

Whereas it is evident that artificial intelligent has positively impacted the society, the abuse of it may lead to the development of artificial human beings. In its turn, this may cause the loss of the value of humanity. Though it helps the society, it is important not to humanize it. Machines created in a result of artificial intelligence should be purely artificial to uphold the value of mankind, and be oriented on a positive impact on the culture.

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