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Diabetes

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This type of diabetes occurs when beta cells not produce enough insulin which is important in regulating the blood sugar level (American Diabetes Association, 2010). Features of this disorder include insensitivity to insulin, disrupted production of hepatic glucose, and cell damage, followed by impairment of function in beta cell (American Diabetes Association, 2010).

The three main aims when treating Tom (a newly diagnosed diabetic)

The three main aims when treating Tom should be to manage his blood sugar at a normal level, to treat any complication that results from the condition, and to provide him with information on how he can ensure that his blood sugar level is at normal level.

Give an example of a nursing intervention for each of the aims

In managing the level of his blood make sure that, injectable insulin is given to help to convert glucose into glycogen. Complications such as open wound can be dressed. Information should include regulating the intake of a specific diet which helps to regulate the glucose level in the blood.

What are four chronic complications of Diabetes Mellitus that Tom could develop?

Nerve damage due to presence of the excess sugar in the small blood capillaries, poor control of blood sugar level leads to loss of senses causing numbness; in men, this causes erectile dysfunction (Eisenbarth & Polonsky, 2008).

Damage of kidney due to impairment of blood vessels involved in filtration; this calls for a kidney transplant (Eisenbarth & Polonsky, 2008).

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The damage of the nerves has serious implications on foot especially if there are untreated cuts and wounds; this may get to serious level which requires amputation of the toe or the whole leg.

Damage of blood vessels supplying the retina causes blindness. Other eye problems that can be caused by damage to blood vessels supplying to the eyes include glaucoma and cataracts (Eisenbarth & Polonsky, 2008).

The three classic symptoms of diabetes mellitus are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria. Describe the pathophysiology behind these symptoms.

The symptoms are due to presence of high level of glucose in the blood and the kidney therefore organism removes the glucose through excretion as urine (American Diabetes Association, 2010).

What is Ketoacidosis and describe the pathophysiology of this condition.

Ketoacidosis is a condition which results when hormones that work against insulin such as glucagon are in high levels while insulin is deficient (Eisenbarth & Polonsky, 2008). Deficiency in insulin results in the excess level of blood sugar, excess production of ketone bodies, and too much acid in the blood.

Excess glucose is due to lack of insulin which helps to convert excess glucose into glycogen; this situation makes the body utilize fats that are stored as the alternative energy source (Brown & Edwards, 2008). As a result, ketone bodies are released; this requires insulin to be broken down and deficiency of insulin thus results in accumulation of the ketone bodies, which are acidic and the excess amount of them in the blood causes the acidity (American Diabetes Association, 2010). This condition is referred to as diabetic ketoacidosis.

What is the definition of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1?

It is a condition in which there is a primary deficiency in insulin which is caused by the inability of the beta cells to produce insulin. It is an autoimmune condition (Eisenbarth & Polonsky, 2008) whereby the body destroys its own beta cells of the pancreases this results into accumulation of high amount of blood sugar.

Type 1 diabetes affects individuals at early stages of their life, particularly before 30 years of age (Eisenbarth & Polonsky, 2008).

What are the signs and symptoms?

Signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes include; frequent thirst and urination, persistent fatigue, blurred vision (American Diabetes Association 2010), rapid excessive loss of weight, and frequent intense hunger (Brown & Edwards, 2008).

Gestational diabetes

It is the type of diabetes that occurs in pregnant women; this is due to impairment on production of hormone insulin by reproduction hormones produced during pregnancy (Eisenbarth & Polonsky, 2008).

The following people are at a high risk of developing gestational diabetes; women who are obese before pregnancy, women who have their first time pregnancy after 25 years, women who are from a family with a history of diabetes, women with high blood pressure, and those reported to have a high amniotic fluid (Alemzadeh & Wyatt, 2010).

In a diabetic patient what are the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia?

The symptoms of low blood sugar are short-term complications and include; excessive hunger, nausea, anxiety, numbness of lips, rapid heartbeats, cold sweats, and lightheadedness.

Hypoglycemia can be treated by taking foods which provide high amount of glucose or taking glucose tablets. Management of this condition requires one to follow a strict high glucose diet; severe cases are treated by taking fast-acting injections of glucagon.

Identify the factors (causes) which can be responsible for the development of epileptic seizures.

Genetic factors (Brown & Edwards, 2008) increase the risk of developing the condition; a family with a history of epileptic seizures puts individuals born of the family at risk of developing the problem.

Environmental factors which put individuals at risk of developing the condition include exposure to lead, working or staying in an area with high emissions of carbon monoxide (Brown & Edwards, 2008)

Traumatic head injury (Brown & Edwards, 2008) however, this does not always indicate that the disorder will form.

Vascular diseases such as stroke and brain infections such as meningitis can also lead to epileptic seizures.

Tonic-clonic (grand mal)

The individual moves the arms and legs in specific movements, there are yells and crying followed by loss of consciousness (Brown & Edwards, 2008). The person experiences aura which is followed by the outcry; he/she falls abruptly and there are jerking movements of legs and head. Incontinence of urine and fecal (Brown & Edwards, 2008) may occur. It usually happens for about 5-20 minutes and when the individual wakes up, there is a moment of confusion and prolonged weakness (Brown & Edwards, 2008).

Absence (petit mal)

Affects individuals in infantile and adolescence; there is loss of conscious but without motor symptoms. Aura is not experienced, and it takes about 5-10 seconds (Brown & Edwards, 2008). During this time, the patient is seen to stare but later he recovers.

Partial seizures

They are either complex or simple partial seizures (Brown & Edwards, 2008); complex partial seizures are characterized by unconscious activities such as smacking of the lip, when restrained, the patient tries to free him/herself (Brown & Edwards, 2008).  Simple partial seizures are characterized with a mixture of emotions. The patient is seen to be in fear at one moment and full of joy at another moment; he/she experiences hallucinations and old memories emerge which makes him/her feel like a stranger even in a familiar environment.

Nursing actions if a patient is observed experiencing a seizure

The patient should be placed in a stable position where there are no risks of injury in case he/she falls. Breathing assistance may be provided in case there are breathing difficulties, the rapid movement of the body should not be restricted and the patient should be placed in an area with enough ventilation.

As a part of therapy for seizures, the patient and the family members should be given information about the condition to remove any misconception (Crisp & Taylor, 2009). Information about management of the occurrence of seizures such as diet and supplements which reduce seizures should also be provided.

What is Parkinson’s disease characterized by and provide three examples of this

Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegerative disorder (Olanow & Tatton, 2009) characterized by rapid loss of ability to control muscles. This leads to impairment of posture, slow voluntary movements, and rigidity of limbs and trunk which results into muscle pain (Olanow & Tatton, 2009).

Describe three complications of Parkinson’s disease that Mr. Grim could potentially suffer

Fall related injuries due to trembling of limbs especially during movements, Pneumonia and choking (Olanow & Tatton, 2009). These can easily lead to premature deaths.

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